Twenty-two people have appeared in court charged over the alleged abuse of vulnerable adults at care homes.
They appeared in Exeter Magistrates' Court facing a total of 86 charges relating to offences at homes in Devon.
Seven defendants, described by police as senior managers, are charged with conspiracy to falsely imprison and conspiracy to ill treat residents.
The charges cover a period between 2009 and 2012 and relate to the Veilstone, Gatooma and Teignmead care homes.
Fifteen defendants, who were all staff at the homes, are charged with either ill-treatment, false imprisonment or both.
The homes were run by Atlas Project Team Ltd and provided care for adults with learning disabilities.
They were closed in 2012 following inspections by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) after concerns were raised about the treatment of residents.
Atlas has since folded.
All of the accused, 13 women and nine men, have been bailed to appear at Exeter Crown Court on Friday 21 November.