New care workers will have to earn a training certificate within 12 weeks of starting a job.
The scheme comes in from March 2015 in England for staff including assistants in hospitals, care homes and those who look after people in their own homes.
Topics will include infection control, dementia care and patient dignity.
This follows an independent review, in the wake of the Stafford Hospital Scandal, which highlighted inconsistencies in training.
Care minister Norman Lamb said it was "essential that we drive up standards", adding: "There's lots of great care out there but there are too many cases of care falling down."
And he confirmed the responsibility for the certificate would "rest with employers and I think that's where the training responsibility should lie".