Ten people have appeared in court charged in connection with ill treatment and neglect of four patients at a private hospital, near Bristol.
The defendants appeared before North Avon magistrates and face charges under the Mental Capacity Act.
They were originally detained after secret filming by the BBC's Panorama at Winterbourne View, which is now closed.
No pleas were entered and the accused were granted bail. They will appear at Bristol Crown Court on 9 February.
Castlebeck, the firm which ran the hospital, is also holding an internal investigation.
The accused are: Charlotte Justine Cotterell, 21, from Yate; Wayne Stuart Rogers, 31, of Kingswood; Alison Dove, 24, also of Kingswood; Graham Doyle, 25, of Patchway; Holly Laura Draper, 23, of Mangotsfield; Sooaklingum Appoo, 58, of Downend and Daniel Brake, 27, also of Downend, all South Gloucestershire.
Also accused are Kelvin Fore, 33, from Middlesbrough; Michael Onyema Ezenagu, 28, of White City, London and Jason Gardiner, 44, of Hartcliffe, south Bristol.
Three other men aged 25, 27 and 41, who were arrested on suspicion of causing ill treatment under the Mental Capacity Act, remain on police bail, pending further inquiries.
A 40-year-old man who was arrested on suspicion of common assault has since been released without charge.
Winterbourne View's 24 patients were transferred when the hospital, in Hambrook, South Gloucestershire, closed in June.